Agricultural industries worldwide are faced with three main risk factors associated with loss of crop productivity and financial loss as a result. These three risk factors are:
· Insect pests
That if one remains neglected, it gives rise to the infestation of the other. Infections in the crop may be soil-borne, aerial, or seed-borne. Besides, management of weed control
to stop weeds from growing is the most preventive way as it
· minimizes competition of nutrients,
· prevents hibernating pests,
· facilitates proper aeration and application of pesticides.
Insect pests as the major factor in damaging agricultural products should be taken into account due to their natural ability to
· suck the cell-sap of the crop,
· chew the foliage and floral parts,
· bore into the stems, buds, and fruits,
· mine the leaves and sometimes even the stems (particularly by some insects’ larvae).
All insects belong to the class Insecta the largest group of arthropods with three main body segments including
· thorax, and
Insects have three pairs of legs but they are not alike in terms of having wings. Some insects have no wings while Some have one pair, and some have two pairs of wings. All
insects are classified into different orders such as Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, and Orthoptera, etc. All insects belonging to different
orders may have different life cycles, different damaging stages, and also the nature of the damage. It is clear that to manage and prevent insect pests effectively, specialist
detailed knowledge is needed such as:
· nature of the damage,
· vulnerable stage of pest,
· damaging stage,
· pre-disposing factors,
· susceptible stages of the host,
· natural enemies, and predators
1. Taking all reported goods and service estimates, invasive insects cost a minimum of US$70.0 billion per year globally, while associated health costs exceed
US$6.9 billion per year.
2. In fact, the largest food-producing countries, China and the United States exhibit the highest potential losses from invasive insects. Several other insect pests
defoliate trees and degrade plant biodiversity, threaten commercial forestry and hamper climate change mitigation via increased tree mortality and associated increases in
3. Invasive insects cost a minimum of US$70.0 billion per year globally for goods and services, of which US$25.2 billion per year comes from reproducible studies.
4. Regionally, North America reported the highest annual costs (US$27.3 billion), followed by Europe (US$3.6 billion per year).
5. the most expensive insect is purportedly the Formosan subterranean termite (the winged termites can fly up to about 1,700 feet) Coptotermes formosanus
estimated at US$30.2 billion per year globally. However, that irreproducible estimate is based on a single non-sourced value of US$2.2 billion per year for the United
States of America, a personal communication supporting a ratio of 1:4 of control: repair costs in a single US city (New Orleans) and an unvalidated assumption that the
US costs represent 50% of the global total.
6. The diamondback moth (The moths are weak fliers, usually flying within 2 m of the ground, and not flying long distances) Plutella xylostella is the most
expensive (US$4.6 billion per year). Other costly insects include the brown spruce longhorn beetle (Adult beetles are capable of flying long distances, but most
fly only a few hundred metres) Tetropium fuscum (US$4.5 billion per year in Canada), the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar (US$3.2 billion per year in North America),
and the Asian long-horned beetle (could fly up to 8.5 miles) Anoplophora glabripennis (US$3.0 billion per year in North America and Europe).
7. Global health costs directly attributable to invasive insects exceed US$6.9 billion per year.
8. Dengue (from a virus transmitted by Aedes albopictus and Ae. aegypti) costs represent 84% of total health costs, followed by 15% for West Nile virus transmitted by Culex
spp. Asia (US$2.84 billion) and North America (US$2.06 billion) and Central/South America (US$1.85 billion) recorded the highest annual health costs.
The costliest insects are as follows:
· Coptotermes formosanus, Order: Blattodea
· Solenopsis Invicta, Order: Hymenoptera
· Plutella xylostella, Order: Lepidoptera
· Tetropium fuscum, Order: Coleoptera
· Lymantria dispar, Order: Lepidoptera
· Ostrinia nubilalis: Order: Lepidoptera
· Adelges piceae, Order: Hemiptera
· Stomoxys calcitrans, Order: Diptera
· Haematobia irritans, Order: Diptera
· Anoplophora glabripennis, Order: Coleoptera
· Ceutorhynchus obstrictus, Order: Coleoptera
Agrilus planipennis: Order: Coleoptera